Research & Studies on Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088
Lactobacillus johnsonii (L. johnsonii) No. 1088 is scientifically proven to support gastrointestinal health by reducing overactive gastric acid secretion, managing side effects of gastric medicinal treatment, eliminating H. pylori bacterial infection and improving intestinal health.
1. Reduce overactive gastric acid secretion to an optimal level
Optimal gastric acid secretion is important to help maintain the ideal pH in the stomach environment, support food digestion and keep stomach free of harmful microbes. L. johnsonii No. 1088 is proven to reduce overactive gastric acid secretion, thereby enabling peptic ulcer to heal naturally and help to soothe acid reflux without compromising the functions of gastric acid.
Suppression Mechanism of L. johnsonii No. 1088 on Overactive Gastric Acid Secretion
^Gastrin is a peptide hormone secreted by gastrin-producing cells (G-cells) in the stomach and duodenum.
This hormone stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach.
Study 1: L. johnsonii No. 1088 reduces serum gastrin secretion
Serum gastrin level was measured after oral administration of germ-free mice with heat-treated L. johnsonii No. 1088 for 10 days. Administration of 109 or 1010 cfu of heat-treated L. johnsonii No. 1088 significantly reduced the serum gastrin level.
The stomachs of the mice were excised after inoculation with heat-treated 10 x 1010 L. johnsonii No. 1088 for 10 days. The protein level of gastrin was quantitatively examined by immunohistochemical staining of gastrin-positive cells (green fluorescence) in the stomach. Nuclei of stomach cells were stained with DAPI (blue). Bars, 50 µm. Gastrin-positive cell count within the stomach was found to decrease as a result of L. johnsonii No. 1088 administration.
*p < 0.05 vs. PBS
Microbiology Open 4, 465-474 (2015)
**p<0.01 vs PBS
Appl. Envirol. Microbiol. 77, 6964-6971 (2011)
Study 2: L. johnsonii No. 1088 reduces gastric acid secretion
The volume, gastric acid concentration and pH of gastric juice were measured after oral administration of 109 live L. johnsonii No. 1088 to mice. The volume of gastric juice did not change with administration of L. johnsonii No. 1088. However, the acid concentration of gastric juice decreased and pH increased significantly after administration. Decreased acid concentration is equivalent to decreased gastric acid secretion in the stomach.
*p=0.051; **p<0.005 vs. PBS
Microbiology Open 4, 465-474 (2015)
Study 3: L. johnsonii No. 1088 maintains optimal level of gastrin and gastric acid secretion for digestion
Gastric acid is important for proper digestive process. When gastric acid is removed by neutralising it with antacids or blocking its production with PPIs, the body would experience mal-absorption of nutrients and a gradual health decline. Unlike the action mechanism of these drugs, L. johnsonii No. 1088 regulates excess gastrin and gastric acid secretion to an optimal level appropriate for digestion. In other words, gastric acid concentration will always be maintained at a healthy level once L. johnsonii No. 1088 has successfully reduced the excess gastric acid in the stomach.
In the study below, heat-treated L. johnsonii No. 1088 was administered to two groups of mice – one with excessive amount of gastric acid and another with a normal level of gastric acid. In the mice with excess gastric acid, the serum gastrin level was observed to have decreased to a healthy level, but no reduction was observed in the mice with normal gastric acid level.
Study 4: L. johnsonii No. 1088 improves gastric acid-related symptoms
30 healthy volunteers with mild gastric discomfort but did not seek medical treatment for gastric diseases were given low-dose (109 cells) or high-dose (1010 cells) of heat-treated L. johnsonii No. 1088 daily for 3 weeks and 6 weeks. They were evaluated for symptoms relating to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) using “frequency scale for the symptoms of GERD (FSSG)” with a higher FSSG indicating more severe gastric discomfort.
Oral administration of heat-treated L. johnsonii No. 1088 improved GERD-related symptoms, including acid reflux and dyspeptic symptoms.
Volunteers who noticed improvement of gastric discomfort without any worsening showed significant reduction in serum gastrin concentration after taking heat-treated L. johnsonii No. 1088 for 6 weeks.
L. johnsonii No. 1088 is an ideal natural and long-lasting solution to soothe symptoms relating to gastric acid – such as gastric pain, acid reflux and heartburn – permanently without compromising on the digestion process or a risk of developing a dependency on it.
2. Manage side effects of gastric medicinal treatment
Common prescribed treatments for peptic ulcer and acid reflux in the market signiﬁcantly increase the number of gastrin-positive cells, causing excessive secretion of gastric acid and a vicious cycle of recurring gastric acid-related symptoms after the treatment stops. L. johnsonii No. 1088 is proven to be eﬀective in counteracting the side eﬀects of prescribed treatments.
Study 1: L. johnsonii No. 1088 suppresses increased gastrin-positive cells resulting from PPI treatment
Acid-suppressing medicines such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly prescribed for peptic ulcer and acid reflux. They reduce the amount of gastric acid secreted by the stomach and thereby providing relief to the symptoms. When the body senses the abnormal reduced level of gastric acid, it reacts to compensate this by producing more gastrin (a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid) to stimulate more gastric acid secretion. This increased acid secretion due to an excess of gastrin in the blood is not apparent during PPI treatment but appears after the drug is stopped. This explains why some people may have difficulty withdrawing from PPI treatment.
In this experiment, the effect of PPI and L. johnsonii No. 1088 on the number of gastrin-positive cells was examined. 109 CFU of live L. johnsonii No. 1088 were administered to 4-week-old mice. When the mice were 8-week old, they were administered with 200 µg of PPI omeprazole every 2 days for 8 weeks. At 16-week old, all mice were sacrificed and the number of gastrin-positive cells was analysed using immunohistochemical method.
PPI treatment increased the number of gastrin-positive cells, leading to excessive secretion of gastric acid beyond pre-treatment levels after the drug is stopped (Chart A). However, an administration of L. johnsonii No. 1088 prior to prescribed PPI treatment helped reduce the gastrin-positive cells (Chart B). In other words, L. johnsonii No. 1088 can alleviate the side effect of PPIs and soothe symptoms derived from excessive gastric acid.
*p < 0.001
Microbiology Open 4, 465-474 (2015)
Comparison between the mechanisms of PPI and L. johnsonii No. 1088
Study 2: L. johnsonii No. 1088 suppresses increased gastrin-positive cells as a result of triple therapy
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the most common cause of peptic ulcer. Triple therapy (two antibiotics and one PPI) is the regimen most frequently recommended for H. pylori eradication. However, research shown that H. pylori eradication by this medicinal treatment increases gastrin-positive cells in the body, which in turn causes a rebound of symptoms associated with overactive gastric acid secretion.
Treatment with triple therapy including PPI increased the number of gastrin-positive cells to a higher level (Chart A). Treatment with heat-treated L. johnsonii No. 1088 significantly decreased the number of gastrin-positive cells (Chart B).
INTECH, Chapter 18, 363 – 381 (2016)
Symptoms recurrence with triple therapy
No symptom recurrence with L. johnsonii No. 1088
L. johnsonii No. 1088 is proven to signiﬁcantly decrease the number of gastrin-positive cells in PPI treatment and triple therapy, preventing an increase of gastric acid and symptom rebound post treatment. Thus, L. johnsonii No. 1088 is a good complement to gradually reduce drug dependency and eventually break free from drug cycle.
3. Target H. pylori bacterial infection
H. pylori infection is the most common cause of peptic ulcer. These malicious bacteria attack the protective lining of the stomach or duodenum and subject the underlying tissue to gastric acid erosion and the development of ulcer.
Study 1: L. johnsonii No. 1088 inhibits the growth of H. pylori in vitro
In an in vitro experiment, heat-treated L. johnsonii No. 1088 were effective in inhibiting the growth of H. pylori. It was proven that a higher number of heat-treated L. johnsonii No. 1088 has a stronger inhibition on a lower initial number of H. pylori. Hence, an appropriate amount of L. johnsonii No. 1088 could efficiently inhibit the growth of H. pylori.
Study 2: L. johnsonii No. 1088 reduces the number of H. pylori in vivo
In an in vivo experiment, germ-free subjects were infected with H. pylori for 4 consecutive days. 24 days after the last H. pylori administration, subjects were given either heat-treated L. johnsonii No. 1088 or PBS (control) for another 21 days. On the 21st day, the number of H. pylori in their stomachs was determined. Results showed the number of H. pylori in the infected stomach of germ-free subjects was significantly decreased by the repeated intake of heat-treated L. johnsonii No. 1088.
L. johnsonii No. 1088 is an effective natural solution to eliminate H. pylori bacteria, the most common cause of peptic ulcer. In addition, it is also effective in combatting other harmful bacteria, such as E.coli O-157, S. typhimurium and C. difficile.
4. Improve intestinal health
Our intestines house a combination of both good and bad bacteria. Maintaining a healthy intestinal flora (microorganisms that colonise the intestines) is vital for strong immunity, prevent constipation, ward off colon cancer and other health problems. Apart from aiding the production of passable stools, our intestinal bacteria also synthesise vital vitamins which could shield us from ulcers, diabetes, obesity, eczema, hair loss, internal bleedings, stroke, cancers, neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson disease, and prevailing gastrointestinal, respiratory and autoimmune disorders.
Good bacteria, such as Bifidobacteria, are beneficial for food digestion, maintenance of a healthy gut, and combatting bad bacteria. Bad bacteria, such as Clostridia, are harmful to our health when their numbers outgrow that of the good bacteria. L. johnsonii No. 1088 is scientifically proven to significantly increase the number of Bifidobacteria and decrease the number of Clostridia.
Study 1: L. johnsonii No.1088 improves intestinal environment
In this experiment, 109 cfu of live L. johnsonii No. 1088 was orally administered once a day for 2 weeks to human intestinal microbiota-bearing mice (germ-free mice with administration of diluted human faeces). The numbers of Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria, and Clostridia in the faeces of mice before and after administration of L. johnsonii No.1088 were determined. After administration of L. johnsonii No. 1088, around 108 cfu/g of lactobacilli detected, reflecting the administered lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The number of Bifidobacteria increased and number of Clostridia decreased with L. johnsonii No. 1088 administration.
*p < 0.05, and **p < 0.001 vs. control
INTECH, Chapter 18, 363 – 381 (2016)
In another experiment, 109 and 1010 heat-treated L. johnsonii No. 1088 were orally administered once a day for 2 weeks to human intestinal microbiota-bearing mice and the number of Bifidobacteria in the faeces was determined. Heat-treated L. johnsonii No. 1088 significantly increased the number of Bifidobacteria in the faeces by the administration of 1010 bacteria for 2 weeks.
**p < 0.01 vs. control
INTECH, Chapter 18, 363-381 (2016)
L. johnsonii No. 1088 is extremely resistant to gastric acid as this LAB strain is discovered in the gastric juice of a healthy person. Thus, it will not be destroyed by gastric acid. Instead, it will be able to get through the acidic stomach environment and reach the intestines where it can play a beneficial role.